access a cookie’s value immediately after calling the setcookie()

If you want to access a cookie’s value immediately after calling the setcookie() you can’t use $_COOKIE. The reason for this is in the nature of the protocol (see https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6265). When you use setcookie() it defines a Cookie to be sent along with the rest of the HTTP headers to the client (see http://php.net/manual/en/function.setcookie.php). But $_COOKIE on the other hand contains variables passed to the current script via HTTP Cookies from the client (http://php.net/manual/en/reserved.variables.cookies.php).

When you change $_COOKIE after calling setcookie() – like some answers here recommend – it doesn’t contain only the Cookies from the client any more. This could interferer with assumptions made in third party code used in your application and may result in unwanted site effects. So in general it’s not good practice and it’s only an option when the calls of setcookie() are part of your own code.

A clean and transparent way to get a value set with setcookie() within the same request is to use headers_list() (see http://php.net/manual/en/function.headers-list.php):

function getcookie($name) {
    $cookies = [];
    $headers = headers_list();
    // see http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6265#section-4.1.1
    foreach($headers as $header) {
        if (strpos($header, 'Set-Cookie: ') === 0) {
            $value = str_replace('&', urlencode('&'), substr($header, 12));
            parse_str(current(explode(';', $value, 1)), $pair);
            $cookies = array_merge_recursive($cookies, $pair);
    return $cookies[$name];
// [...]
setcookie('uname', $uname, time() + 60 * 30);
echo "Cookie value: " . getcookie('uname');

But notice this won’t work in PHP CLI (e.g. PHPUnit). In such a case you could use third party extensions like XDebug (see http://xdebug.org/docs/all_functions#xdebug_get_headers).


Use of MYSQL Limit vs Offset

MySQL provides a LIMIT clause that is used to specify the number of records to return.

The LIMIT clause makes it easy to code multi page results or pagination with SQL, and is very useful on large tables. Returning a large number of records can impact on performance.

Assume we wish to select all records from 1 – 30 (inclusive) from a table called “Orders”. The SQL query would then look like this:
$sql = “SELECT * FROM Orders LIMIT 30”;

When the SQL query above is run, it will return the first 30 records.

What if we want to select records 16 – 25 (inclusive)?

Mysql also provides a way to handle this: by using OFFSET.

The SQL query below says “return only 10 records, start on record 16 (OFFSET 15)”:
$sql = “SELECT * FROM Orders LIMIT 10 OFFSET 15”;

You could also use a shorter syntax to achieve the same result:
$sql = “SELECT * FROM Orders LIMIT 15, 10”;

Notice that the numbers are reversed when you use a comma.

Way to upgrade PHP5 to PHP7

Enter the following commands in the order shown:

sudo apt-get -y update
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
sudo apt-get -y update
sudo apt-get install -y php7.0 libapache2-mod-php7.0 php7.0 php7.0-common php7.0-gd php7.0-mysql php7.0-mcrypt php7.0-curl php7.0-intl php7.0-xsl php7.0-mbstring php7.0-zip php7.0-bcmath php7.0-iconv

Enter the following command to verify PHP 7.0.2 installed properly:

php -v

Following is a sample response that indicates PHP 7.0.2 is installed:

PHP 7.0.8-2+deb.sury.org~trusty+1 (cli) ( NTS )
Copyright (c) 1997-2016 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v3.0.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2016 Zend Technologies
with Zend OPcache v7.0.8-2+deb.sury.org~trusty+1, Copyright (c) 1999-2016, by Zend Technologies

Find PHP configuration files

To find the web server configuration, run a phpinfo.php file in your web browser and look for the Loaded Configuration File as follows:


1. Make sure you remove any traces of php/php5

Open a terminal Ctrl+Alt+T and:

cd /etc/apache2/mods-enabled
ls -la

The output should not contain any php5.conf or php5.load, but if it does, do the following:

# this is the proper way of disabling modules
sudo a2dismod php5

# run this only if the above command didn’t remove the php5 sym-links
sudo rm php5.load
sudo rm php5.conf

Now add the php7.0.conf and php7.0.load instead:

# this is the proper way of enabling modules
sudo a2enmod php7.0

# run this only if the above command didn’t create the php7.0 sym-links
sudo ln -s php7.0.conf ../mods-available/php7.0.conf
sudo ln -s php7.0.load ../mods-available/php7.0.load

The output of ls -la php* should look like this:

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 29 Apr 15 03:55 php7.0.conf -> ../mods-available/php7.0.conf
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 29 Apr 15 03:55 php7.0.load -> ../mods-available/php7.0.load

After dealing with the modules we now come to the /etc/apache2/conf-enabled directory. Remove any traces of php/php5 here as well by sudo rm

Then, if needed do:

# the proper way of enabling configs
sudo a2enconf php7.0-cgi
sudo a2enconf php7.0-fpm

# do those commands only if the above didn’t work out
sudo ln -s php7.0-cgi.conf ../conf-available/php7.0-cgi.conf
sudo ln -s php7.0-fpm.conf ../conf-available/php7.0-fpm.conf

The output of ls -la php* should look like this:

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 33 Apr 21 17:00 php7.0-cgi.conf -> ../conf-available/php7.0-cgi.conf
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 33 Apr 21 17:01 php7.0-fpm.conf -> ../conf-available/php7.0-fpm.conf

2. Restarting Apache2

Before restarting Apache make sure to clean out the Apache error.log then restart:

sudo su
> /var/log/apache2/error.log
sudo service apache2 restart

How to add new tab to admin list of posts and handle result list



add_action('views_edit-post','remove_edit_post_views');function remove_edit_post_views( $views ){
    $views['pre']='<a href="'.admin_url().'edit.php?pre=pre">My Special Posts</a>';return $views;}

add_action('pre_get_posts','my_special_list');function my_special_list( $q ){
  $scr = get_current_screen();if( is_admin()&&( $scr->base==='edit')&& $q->is_main_query()){// To target only a post type uncomment following line and adjust post type name// if ( $scr->post_type !== 'post' ) return;// if you change the link in function above adjust next line accordingly
    $pre = filter_input(INPUT_GET,'pre', FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING);if( $pre ==='pre'){// adjust meta query to fit your needs
      $meta_query = array('key'=>'is_special','value'=>'yes',);
      $q->set('meta_query', array($meta_query));}}}

Validating Sanitizing and Escaping User Data

$title = sanitize_text_field( $_POST['title'] );
update_post_meta( $post->ID, 'title', $title );

Behinds the scenes, the function does the following:

  • Checks for invalid UTF-8 (uses wp_check_invalid_utf8())
  • Converts single < characters to entity
  • Strips all tags
  • Remove line breaks, tabs and extra white space
  • Strip octets

The sanitize_*() class of helper functions are super nice for us, as they ensure we’re ending up with safe data and require minimal effort on our part:

How to Display Any RSS Feed on Your WordPress Blog

<h2><?php _e( ‘Recent news from Some-Other Blog:’, ‘my-text-domain’ ); ?></h2>

<?php // Get RSS Feed(s)
include_once( ABSPATH . WPINC . ‘/feed.php’ );

// Get a SimplePie feed object from the specified feed source.
$rss = fetch_feed( ‘http://www.wpbeginner.com/feed/&#8217; );

if ( ! is_wp_error( $rss ) ) : // Checks that the object is created correctly

// Figure out how many total items there are, but limit it to 5.
$maxitems = $rss->get_item_quantity( 5 );

// Build an array of all the items, starting with element 0 (first element).
$rss_items = $rss->get_items( 0, $maxitems );


<?php if ( $maxitems == 0 ) : ?>
<li><?php _e( ‘No items’, ‘my-text-domain’ ); ?></li>
<?php else : ?>
<?php // Loop through each feed item and display each item as a hyperlink. ?>
<?php foreach ( $rss_items as $item ) : ?>
<a href=”<?php echo esc_url( $item->get_permalink() ); ?>”
title=”<?php printf( __( ‘Posted %s’, ‘my-text-domain’ ), $item->get_date(‘j F Y | g:i a’) ); ?>”>
<?php echo esc_html( $item->get_title() ); ?>
<?php endforeach; ?>
<?php endif; ?>


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